About the journal

The Annals of African Surgery ANN. AFR. SURG. (ISSN: 1999-9674 [print], ISSN: 2523-0816 [online]) is a bi-annual publication that aims to provide a medium for the exchange of current information between surgeons in the African region. The journal embraces surgery in all its aspects: basic science, clinical research, experimental research, and surgical education. The Annals of African Surgery will help surgeons in the region keep abreast of developing surgical innovations.
This Ethics Policies document is intended to inform the public and all persons affiliated with The Annals of African Surgery of its general ethics policies.

Types of articles published:
-Original articles
-Case reports
-Case series
-Short communications
-Letters to the editor

Annals of African Surgery publishes manuscripts in the following fields:
- Cardiac and thoracic surgery
- General surgery
- Neurosurgery
- Oral and maxillofacial surgery
- Trauma and orthopaedic surgery
- Otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat surgery)
- Paediatric surgery
- Plastic and reconstructive surgery
- Urology surgery
- Gynaecologic surgery
- Surgical education
-Medical education
-Global surgery
- Health advocacy
- Innovations in surgery
- Basic sciences
- Anatomical sciences
- Genetic and molecular studies

While there are several ways of reporting research findings, we encourage all authors to review guidelines including the ones by the EQUATOR network prior to submission of manuscripts. There are also several resources available to authors as they prepare their work. Please visit Author Aid which is an excellent source of resources for authors.

Study Design and Ethics
In the preparation of a manuscript, authors should, in general, follow the recommendations in Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

All studies should be carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

Patient consent must be obtained for all human studies, and that must be stated in the manuscript. If such consent has not been obtained, a letter of explanation must be included with the submission. The authors are responsible for obtaining and retaining the documentation of such permission, which should not be forwarded to the The Annals of African Surgery offices in order to protect the privacy of the patients. Patient confidentiality must be protected in accordance with the relevant legal provision of the country of study.

All studies submitted for publication must include a letter indicating IRB approval or approval by a similar ethics board, and such approval must be noted in the manuscript. If such approval is not included, a full explanation must be provided to the Editor in Chief, who may investigate further.

All clinical trials submitted for consideration (i.e., any clinical study in which patients are randomized into two treatment groups OR are followed prospectively to compare two different treatments) must have been registered in a public trials registry such as www.clinicaltrials.gov. Trials should be registered at the start of the research.

All manuscripts dealing with experimental results in animals must include a statement that the study has been approved by an animal utilization study committee. The Editor-in-Chief may further investigate that statement.

Information about the management of postoperative pain for both animal and human subjects must be included.

The The Annals of African Surgery considers all authors to be equally responsible for the entire manuscript. All authors must sign a document indicating that they have read and approved the contents of the manuscript. Each author must have contributed significantly to, and be willing to take public responsibility for, one or more aspects of the study: its design, data acquisition and analysis, and interpretation of data. All authors must have been actively involved in the drafting and critical revision of the manuscript and each must provide final approval of the version to be published. All authors are held equally responsible for ensuring that documentation is correct and accurate, and that the required permissions have been obtained. No author may disclaim any part of the manuscript.

Authors are encouraged to register with the ORCID which provides unique identifiers for each author. We also encourage registration with PUBLONS which helps authors and reviewers track their metrics.

Any change in authorship (including the order of names and the designation of the corresponding author) after the initial review process will necessitate a signed letter from all agreeing to the change.

Individuals who have contributed to only one section of the manuscript or have contributed only cases should be credited in an acknowledgement footnote.

Originality, Prior Publication, and Reproduction of Images
Articles are accepted only for exclusive publication. Previously published articles, including those published in non-English journals, are not eligible for publication.

All manuscripts that pass the initial review process are screened for plagiarism, which is a ground for immediate rejection.
Redundant publication/submission and duplicate publication/submission deplete the resources of our reviewers and editors. If an author is in doubt as to whether a manuscript might be considered redundant, that author should contact the journal’s editor in advance to discuss the issue.

Images may not be enhanced or altered without clear and explicit disclosure in the legend. Any digital manipulation of an image—color, contrast, brightness, etc.—must be applied to the entire image and may not result in misrepresentation of the original image.

Conflict of Interest
All editors at the The Annals of African Surgery have disclosed any conflicts of interest to the Editor-in-Chief, who has resolved those as necessary to ensure that an editor conflict of interest does not impact the review of any manuscript submission. Authors are required to reveal any conflicts of interest when they submit the manuscript, using the form published by the International Council of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The form is available through the manuscript submission website and must be filled by each author. The information contained in the disclosure statement has no bearing on the editorial decision to publish a manuscript. A summary of the statements selected by the author or authors will be printed with the published article and each author’s completed ICJME disclosure statement is available online.

Sources of funding must be disclosed in the manuscript text.

Reviewers, assistant editors, and/or associate editors may have a conflict of interest or a competing interest with regard to the subject matter of a manuscript. Such conflicts are disclosed to the handling editor and/or the Editor-in-Chief as early in the review process as possible. If warranted, a different reviewer will be asked to evaluate the manuscript or the paper will be reassigned to another editor. The Editor-in-Chief has no known conflicts of interest or competing interests and makes the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of all manuscripts submitted.

When one of the editors submits a paper to the journal, the online system automatically excludes him/her from processing the paper. In addition, said editor is excused from the portion of the meeting where the particular paper is discussed.

The Annals of African Surgery takes seriously all allegations of potential misconduct and will follow the COPE guidelines outlining how to deal with cases of suspected misconduct.

In cases of suspected research or publication misconduct, it may be necessary for the Editor to contact and share manuscripts with third parties, for example, author(s)’ institution(s) and ethics committee(s).

Research misconduct
All research involving humans (including human data and human material) and animals must have been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework. If there is suspicion that research has not taken place within an appropriate ethical framework, the Editor may reject a manuscript and may inform third parties, for example, author(s)’ institution(s) and ethics committee(s).

In cases of proven research misconduct involving published articles, or where the scientific integrity of the article is significantly undermined, articles may be retracted.

Publication misconduct
The Annals of African Surgery will follow the COPE guidelines outlining how to deal with cases of suspected misconduct.

Image manipulation
We endorse the guidelines given in the Submission Guidelines for Authors of the Journal of Cell Biology, from where the following is adapted:

  • All digital images in manuscripts considered for publication will be scrutinized for any indication of manipulation that is inconsistent with the following guidelines. Manipulation that violates these guidelines may result in delays in manuscript processing or rejection, or retraction of a published article.
  • No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.
  • The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures, must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (i.e. using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend.
  • Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to every pixel in the image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including the background. Non-linear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
  • Any questions raised during or after the peer review process will be referred to the Editor, who will request the original data from the author(s) for comparison with the prepared figures. If the original data cannot be produced, the manuscript may be rejected or, in the case of a published article, retracted. Any case in which the manipulation affects the interpretation of the data will result in rejection or retraction. Cases of suspected misconduct will be reported to the author(s)’ institution(s).

A detailed review of all manuscripts is taken on submission to check for plagiarism. If plagiarism is identified, the COPE guidelines on plagiarism will be followed. The Annals of African Surgery are also actively looking into acquiring anti-plagiarism software.

Peer Review and Editorial Decisions
Scientific articles and all other manuscripts submitted to The Annals of African Surgery are first reviewed by our assistant editors and associate editor. Some manuscripts are rejected after such initial review, however, the majority of articles are sent to two or more reviewers for double-blinded peer review. At no time are the identities of authors or reviewers disclosed to one another.

Although very few rejection notices are overturned, authors can appeal an editorial decision by sending an email to the Editor in Chief. The choice to uphold the initial decision, offer a chance at revision, or discuss the paper at an editorial workshop is up to the Editor-in-Chief’s discretion.

The review process and the manuscripts under review are kept confidential by the editors and reviewers throughout the whole process.

Manuscript processing from submission to publication

This journal provides immediate Open Access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Visitors to our website have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles. The journal does not have any article processing charges (APC’s) or article submission charges. All articles in the Annals of African Surgery will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on the Creative commons website.

Article withdrawal
The Surgical Society of Kenya recognises the importance of the integrity and completeness of the scholarly record to researchers and librarians and attaches the highest importance to maintaining trust in the authority of its electronic archive. It is a general principle of scholarly communication that the editor-in-chief of the annals of african surgery is solely and independently responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal shall be published. In making this decision the editor is guided by policies of the journal’s editorial board and by such legal requirements in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. This may necessitate the withdrawal, retraction, removal or replacement of articles. Such actions must not be undertaken lightly and can only occur under exceptional circumstances.

Article withdrawal
This can be used for aricles in press or for papers published in the forthcoming aricles section of the journal. This may be due to any number of infringments including but not limited to multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism or fraudulent use of data.Visitors to the website will be met with information that the paper has been withdrawn.

Article retraction
Articles may be retracted due to infringements of professional ethical codes including but not limited to multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism or fraudulent use of data. This can be initiated by the authors or the editor-in-chief under the advice of members of the scholarly community. It may appear in any one or more of the following ways:

1. A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published in the paginated part of a subsequent issue of the journal and listed in the contents list.
2. The original article is retained unchanged save for a watermark on the .pdf indicating on each page that it is “retracted.”
3. The HTML version of the document is removed.

Article removal
In an extremely limited number of cases, it may be necessary to remove an article from the online database especially in cases of defamation, infringment of others’ legal rights or in execution of a court order. while the title and the author information will be retained, the text of the article will be replaced with information indicating the article has been removed for legal reasons.

Article correction / replacement
In exceptional circumstance, the editor-in-chief may allow a replacement of a flawed article with a corrected version. Visitors to the website will be redirected to the corrected article.

Publication of advertisements in the The Annals of African Surgery does not imply endorsement. Advertisers and sponsors do not have advance knowledge of our specific editorial content. Content is not edited or modified in any way to accommodate advertisers. The Annals of African Surgery does not knowingly permit advertising for a specific product in physical proximity to a specific article mentioning that product. Editorial decisions are made without influence by advertisers or sponsors.

Sources of funding
The journal is currently funded by a grant from the Surgical Society of Kenya, the African Journal Partnership Project, and volunteer time from the editors.

About the publisher
The Annals of African Surgery is published by the Surgical Society of Kenya.

Open Access Policy
This journal provides immediate Open Access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Visitors to our website have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles. The journal does not have any article processing charges (APC’s) or article submission charges. All articles in the Annals of African Surgery will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on the Creative commons website.

Archiving & Indexing
Articles from The Annals of African Surgery are archived on this website. Articles may also be found on African Journals Online and the Directory of Open Access Journals. Print copies of all issues of The Annals of African Surgery are sent to the National Library of Kenya and the National Library of Congress. The editorial team are currently configuring annalsofafricansurgery.com to enable the journal content to be digitally archived by CLOCKSS.

Copyright Notice
Authors submitting articles to The Annals of African Surgery do so on the understanding that if accepted, they will retain the copyright and allow the journal to publish and archive the article under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on the Creative commons website. All authors will be required to sign an Author Agreement form detailing the agreement with the journal prior to the article being published. Download the form here

Editorial Office
Surgical Society of Kenya
P.O Box 18981-00100
Nairobi, Kenya

Details of digital advert specifications, rates and audience can be found here
Please direct advertising enquiries to the Editorial Office. (See contact info above.)


The Annals of African Surgery held a parallel session during the 19th Annual Scientific Conference held on 11th April 2019 at Travellers beach hotel, Mombasa, Kenya. The editorial team organized ...
The workshop was organised by the Annals of African Surgery aimed at helping investigators acquire skills and develop strategic means to communicate with the broad scientific community and, in particular, ...